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Viser: Chemistry Essentials for Dummies
Detaljer Om Varen
- Paperback: 192 sider
- Udgiver: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated (Maj 2019)
- ISBN: 9781119591146
Chemistry Essentials For Dummies (9781119591146) was previously published as Chemistry Essentials For Dummies (9780470618363). While this version features a new Dummies cover and design, the content is the same as the prior release and should not be considered a new or updated product.
Whether studying chemistry as part of a degree requirement or as part of a core curriculum, students will find Chemistry Essentials For Dummies to be an invaluable quick reference guide to the fundamentals of this often challenging course. Chemistry Essentials For Dummies contains content focused on key topics only, with discrete explanations of critical concepts taught in a typical two-semester high school chemistry class or a college level Chemistry I course, from bonds and reactions to acids, bases, and the mole. This guide is also a perfect reference for parents who need to review critical chemistry concepts as they help high school students with homework assignments, as well as for adult learners headed back into the classroom who just need to a refresher of the core concepts.
The Essentials For Dummies Series
Dummies is proud to present our new series, The Essentials For Dummies. Now students who are prepping for exams, preparing to study new material, or who just need a refresher can have a concise, easy-to-understand review guide that covers an entire course by concentrating solely on the most important concepts. From algebra and chemistry to grammar and Spanish, our expert authors focus on the skills students most need to succeed in a subject.
1 About This Book 1 Conventions Used in This Book 2 Foolish Assumptions 2 Icons Used in This Book 3 Where to Go from Here 3
Chapter 1: Matter and Energy: Exploring the Stuff of Chemistry 5 Knowing the States of Matter and Their Changes 6 Solids, liquids, and gases 6 Condensing and freezing 7 Melting and boiling 8 Skipping liquids: Sublimation 9 Pure Substances and Mixtures 9 Pure substances 10 Throwing mixtures into the mix 11 Measuring Matter 12 Nice Properties You''ve Got There 13 Energy Types 14 Kinetic energy 14 Potential energy 15 Temperature and Heat 15
Chapter 2: What''s in an Atom? 17 Subatomic Particles 17 Centering on the Nucleus 19 Locating Those Electrons 21 The quantum mechanical model 21 Energy level diagrams 26 Isotopes and Ions 30 Isotopes: Varying neutrons 31 Ions: Varying electrons 32
Chapter 3: The Periodic Table 35 Repeating Patterns: The Modern Periodic Table 35 Arranging Elements in the Periodic Table 38 Grouping metals, nonmetals, and metalloids 38 Arranging elements by families and periods 41
Chapter 4: Nuclear Chemistry 43 Seeing How the Atom''s Put Together 43 Dealing with a Nuclear Breakup: Balancing Reactions 44 Understanding Types of Natural Radioactive Decay 46 Alpha emission 47 Beta emission 48 Gamma emission 48 Positron emission 48 Electron capture 49 Half-Lives and Radioactive Dating 49 Calculating remaining radioactivity 50 Radioactive dating 51 Breaking Elements Apart with Nuclear Fission 51 Mass defect: Where does all that energy come from? 52 Chain reactions and critical mass 52 Coming Together with Nuclear Fusion 53
Chapter 5: Ionic Bonding 55 Forming Ions: Making Satisfying Electron Trades 55 Gaining and losing electrons 56 Looking at charges on single-atom ions 58 Grouping atoms to form polyatomic ions 61 Creating Ionic Compounds 63 Making the bond: Sodium metal + chlorine gas = sodium chloride 63 Figuring out the formulas of ionic compounds 64 Naming ionic compounds 66 Bonding Clues: Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes 68
Chapter 6: Covalent Bonding 69 Covalent Bond Basics 69 Sharing electrons: A hydrogen example 69 Comparing covalent bonds with other bonds 71 Dealing with multiple bonds 72 Naming Covalent Compounds Made of Two Elements 73 Writing Covalent Compound Formulas 74 Empirical formulas 74 Molecular or true formulas 75 Structural formulas: Dots and dashes 75 Electronegativities: Which Atoms Have More Pull? 81 Predicting the type of bond 81 Polar covalent bonding: Creating partial charges 83 Attracting other molecules: Intermolecular forces 84
Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions 87 Reactants and Products: Reading Chemical Equations 87 Collision Theory: How Reactions Occur 88 Hitting the right spot 89 Adding, releasing, and absorbing energy 90 Types of Reactions 92 Combination reactions: Coming together 92 Decomposition reactions: Breaking down 93 Single displacement reactions: Kicking out another element 93 Double displacement reactions: Trading places 95 Combustion reactions: Burning 97 Redox reactions: Exchanging electrons 97 Balancing Chemical Equations 97 Balancing the Haber process 98 Balancing the burning of butane 99 Knowing Chemical Equilibrium Backward and Forward 100 Matching rates of change in the Haber process 101 Constants: Comparing amounts of products and reactants 102 Le Chatelier''s Principle: Getting More (or Less) Product 103 Changing the concentration 103 Changing the temperature 104 Changing the pressure 104 Chemical Kinetics: Changing Reaction Speeds 105 Seeing How Catalysts Speed Up Reactions 107 Heterogeneous catalysis: Giving reactants a better target 108 Homogeneous catalysis: Offering an easier path 108
Chapter 8: Electrochemistry: Using Electrons 111 Transferring Electrons with Redox Reactions 111 Oxidation 112 Reduction 113 One''s loss is the other''s gain 114 Oxidation numbers 115 Balancing Redox Equations 116 Exploring Electrochemical Cells 120 Galvanic cells: Getting electricity from chemical reactions 121 Electrolytic cells: Getting chemical reactions from electricity 122 Having it both ways with rechargeable batteries 123
Chapter 9: Measuring Substances with the Mole 125 Counting by Weighing 125 Moles: Putting Avogadro''s Number to Good Use 127 Defining the mole 127 Calculating weight, particles, and moles 128 Finding formulas of compounds 129 Chemical Reactions and Moles 130 Reaction stoichiometry 131 Percent yield 132 Limiting reactants 133
Chapter 10: A Salute to Solutions 135 Mixing Things Up with Solutes, Solvents, and Solutions 135 How dissolving happens 136 Concentration limits 136 Saturated facts 137 Understanding Solution Concentration Units 138 Percent composition 138 Molarity: Comparing solute to solution 140 Molality: Comparing solute to solvent 143 Parts per million 143
Chapter 11: Acids and Bases 145 Observing Properties of Acids and Bases 145 The Br?nsted-Lowry Acid-Base Theory 146 Understanding Strong and Weak Acids and Bases 147 Strong: Ionizing all the way 147 Weak: Ionizing partially 149 Acid-Base Reactions: Using the Br?nsted-Lowry System 151 Acting as either an acid or base: Amphoteric water 152 Showing True Colors with Acid-Base Indicators 153 Doing a quick color test with litmus paper 153 Phenolphthalein: Finding concentration with titration 154 Phun with the pH Scale 155
Chapter 12: Clearing the Air on Gases 159 The Kinetic Molecular Theory: Assuming Things about Gases 159 Relating Physical Properties with Gas Laws 162 Boyle''s Law: Pressure and volume 163 Charles''s Law: Volume and temperature 164 Gay-Lussac''s Law: Pressure and temperature 165 The combined gas law: Pressure, volume, and temp 166 Avogadro''s Law: The amount of gas 167 The ideal gas equation: Putting it all together 168
Chapter 13: Ten Serendipitous Discoveries in Chemistry 171 Archimedes: Streaking Around 171 Vulcanization of Rubber 172 Molecular Geometry 172 Mauve Dye 172 Kekul?: The Beautiful Dreamer 173 Discovering Radioactivity 173 Finding Really Slick Stuff: Teflon 173 Stick ''Em Up! Sticky Notes 174 Growing Hair 174 Sweeter than Sugar 174