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Viser: Physics of Continuous Matter - Exotic and Everyday Phenomena in the Macroscopic World

Physics of Continuous Matter - Exotic and Everyday Phenomena in the Macroscopic World, 2. udgave

Physics of Continuous Matter

Exotic and Everyday Phenomena in the Macroscopic World
Benny Lautrup
(2011)
Sprog: Engelsk
Taylor & Francis Group
550,00 kr. 495,00 kr.
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Detaljer Om Varen

  • 2. Udgave
  • Hardback: 696 sider
  • Udgiver: Taylor & Francis Group (Marts 2011)
  • ISBN: 9781420077001

Physics of Continuous Matter: Exotic and Everyday Phenomena in the Macroscopic World, Second Editionprovides an introduction to the basic ideas of continuum physics and their application to a wealth of macroscopic phenomena. The text focuses on the many approximate methods that offer insight into the rich physics hidden in fundamental continuum mechanics equations. Like its acclaimed predecessor, this second edition introduces mathematical tools on a "need-to-know" basis.

New to the Second Edition
This edition includes three new chapters on elasticity of slender rods, energy, and entropy. It also offers more margin drawings and photographs and improved images of simulations. Along with reorganizing much of the material, the author has revised many of the physics arguments and mathematical presentations to improve clarity and consistency. The collection of problems at the end of each chapter has been expanded as well. These problems further develop the physical and mathematical concepts presented.

With worked examples throughout, this book clearly illustrates both qualitative and quantitative physics reasoning. It emphasizes the importance in understanding the physical principles behind equations and the conditions underlying approximations. A companion website provides a host of ancillary materials, including software programs, color figures, and additional problems.

Contents Preface
xi 1 Continuous matter 1
1.
1 Molecules 2
1.
2 The continuum approximation 6
1.
3 Newtonian mechanics 9
1.
4 Reference frames 11
1.
5 Cartesian coordinate systems 14
1.
6 Fields 15 I Fluids at rest 19 2 Pressure 21
2.
1 What is pressure? 21
2.
2 The pressure field 24
2.
3 Hydrostatics 27
2.
4 Equation of state 29
2.
5 Bulk modulus 33
2.
6 Application: Earth''s homentropic atmosphere 34
2.
7 Application: The Sun''s convective envelope 38 3 Buoyancy and stability 41
3.
1 Archimedes'' principle 41
3.
2 The gentle art of ballooning 44
3.
3 Stability of floating bodies 46
3.
4 Ship stability 48 4 Hydrostatic shapes 57
4.
1 Fluid interfaces in hydrostatic equilibrium 57
4.
2 The centrifugal force 58
4.
3 The figure of Earth 60
4.
4 The Earth, the Moon, and the tides 62
4.
5 Application: The tides of Io 66 5 Surface tension 69
5.
1 Basic physics of surface tension 69
5.
2 Soap bubbles 73
5.
3 Pressure discontinuity 76
5.
4 The Rayleigh-Plateau instability 78
5.
5 Contact angle 81 vi PHYSICS OF CONTINUOUS MATTER
5.
6 Meniscus at a flat wall 84
5.
7 Meniscus in a cylindrical tube 86
5.
8 Application: Sessile drops and captive bubbles 88
5.
9 Application: Pendant drops and tethered bubbles 90 II Solids at rest 95 6 Stress 97
6.
1 Friction 97
6.
2 Stress fields 99
6.
3 The nine components of stress 101
6.
4 Mechanical equilibrium 104
6.
5 Asymmetric stress tensors 106 7 Strain 109
7.
1 Displacement 109
7.
2 The displacement field 112
7.
3 Geometrical meaning of the strain tensor 116
7.
4 Work and energy 119
7.
5 Large deformations 120 8 Hooke''s law 125
8.
1 Young''s modulus and Poisson''s ratio 125
8.
2 Hooke''s law in isotropic matter 128
8.
3 Static uniform deformation 132
8.
4 Elastic energy 134 9 Basic elastostatics 139
9.
1 Equations of elastostatics 139
9.
2 Standing up to gravity 142
9.
3 Bending a beam 146
9.
4 Twisting a shaft 150
9.
5 Application: Radial deformation of a spherical body 153
9.
6 Application: Radial deformation of a cylindrical body 156 10 Slender rods 163
10.
1 Small deflections without torsion 163
10.
2 Buckling instability 166
10.
3 Large deflections without torsion 169
10.
4 Mixed bending and twisting 171
10.
5 Application: The helical spring 173 11 Computational elastostatics 177
11.
1 Theory of the numeric method 177
11.
2 Discretization of space 180
11.
3 Application: Gravitational settling in two dimensions 182 III Fluids in motion 187 12 Continuum dynamics 189
12.
1 The velocity field 189
12.
2 Incompressible flow 192 CONTENTS vii
12.
3 Mass conservation 194
12.
4 Equations of continuum dynamics 198
12.
5 Application: Big Bang 200
12.
6 Application: Newtonian cosmology 201 13 Nearly ideal flow 207
13.
1 Euler equation for incompressible ideal flow 207
13.
2 Application: Collapse of a spherical cavity 209
13.
3 Steady incompressible ideal flow 211
13.
4 Vorticity 216
13.
5 Circulation 219
13.
6 Potential flow 220
13.
7 Application: Cylinder in uniform crosswind 222
13.
8 Application: Sphere in a uniform stream 225
13.
9 d''Alembert''s paradox 226 14 Compressible flow 229
14.
1 Small-amplitude sound waves 229
14.
2 Steady compressible flow 233
14.
3 Application: The Laval nozzle 237 15 Viscosity 243
15.
1 Shear viscosity 243
15.
2 Velocity-driven planar flow 246
15.
3 Dynamics of incompressible Newtonian fluids 250
15.
4 Classification of flows 253
15.
5 Dynamics of compressible Newtonian fluids 255
15.
6 Application: Viscous attenuation of sound 257 16 Channels and pipes 261
16.
1 Steady, incompressible, viscous flow 261
16.
2 Pressure-driven channel flow 262
16.
3 Gravity-driven planar flow 265
16.
4 Laminar pipe flow 268
16.
5 Phenomenology of turbulent pipe flow 274
16.
6 Laminar cylindric flow 277
16.
7 Secondary flow and Taylor vortices 281 17 Creeping flow 287
17.
1 Stokes flow 287
17.
2 Creeping flow around a solid ball 289
17.
3 Beyond Stokes'' law 294
17.
4 Lubrication 298
17.
5 Application: Loaded journal bearing 304 18 Rotating fluids 309
18.
1 Fictitious forces 309
18.
2 Steady flow in a rotating system
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